Susan Williams has more than 25 years of experience researching, writing and analyzing energy, environmental and corporate responsibility topics for institutional investors. Since 2009, Williams has been an independent consultant, focusing on sustainability and energy issues for Si2, the IRRC Institute, the Global Initiative for Sustainability Ratings (GISR) and People 4 Earth Foundation. She previously was a research manager at RiskMetrics Group. Williams began her career in corporate responsibility with the IRRC Social Issues Service in 1984 and continued to provide proxy analysis through IRRC's acquisition by Institutional Shareholder Services and RiskMetrics. From 1982 until 1984, she also worked with energy and environmental consulting firms in the Boston area. Williams is the lead author of more than a half-dozen books and publications, including a recent report on hydraulic fracturing of shale gas and a series spanning a decade of renewable energy development in the United States. Her findings have been reported in The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, The Washington Post, the Economist and other leading newspapers. She also has published work on environmental issues, including large-scale hydroelectric development in northern Quebec and recycling, and has contributed to various journals, including Issues in Science and Technology. Williams has produced in-depth reports and company-specific analyses for institutional investors on a variety of additional corporate responsibility issues, including fair employment domestically and in Northern Ireland, equal credit opportunity, economically targeted investments, and links between executive compensation and social performance. Williams graduated cum laude with a B.A. in American Studies from Williams College, where she also received highest honors from the Environmental Studies Program.